Some claim that Leonardo was not a religious person. There is a sentence in Leonardo’s notes which touches upon this issue (sketch 837): “I leave alone the sacred books; for they are supreme truth.” (Richter, 1888) Whether this thought is to be interpreted as sarcastic or as advice, we can all hope to find out through a personal exploration of Scripture.


Next, we apply mathematical Set Theory (Appendix 11) as the method for our thought process. These sets are formed using facts from Scripture, after which the Sets are analyzed and some contradictions identified.


Let there be Sets,

A = "who is John the Baptist"

B = "who is Jesus"

Then the complements,

A= "who John the Baptist is not"

B= "who Jesus is not"

And let the sets be like,

A ∩ A= ∅


B∩B= ∅,

because it is obvious, that the sets opposite to each other cannot contain the same facts. Now let us form the Sets and mark with letters the facts found in the sacred texts. First, Set A is formed:


A = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g}


a = John is a Reed. It is written in the language of symbolism: “A reed swayed by the wind in the desert.” (Matthew 11:7) AND John was a voice of one calling in desert. (John 1:23)

b = John is ascetic. John wears clothing made of camel’s hair, with a leather belt round his waist, and he eats locusts and wild honey. (Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6)

c = John is more than a prophet. (Matthew 11:9)

d = John is born of woman. “Among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist; yet he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than him” (Matthew 11:11)

e = John is the Elijah who was to come. (Matthew 11:14)

f = John did not eat or drink among other people. “For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, ‘He has a demon.’” (Matthew 11:18)

g = The name of John the Baptist is يَحُىَ, [jʌhʊjʌ] according to the Quran (Quran, Surat Maryam, 19:12). AND John the Baptist is, of course, John the Baptist.


Secondly, let us form the Set B:

B = {h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s}


h = Jesus is he who comes after John. (Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:7) AND Jesus was before and after John. (John 1:30)

i = Jesus is John the Baptist. “This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead! That is why miraculous powers are at work in him” (Matthew 14:2).

j = Jesus is John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or/and one of the prophets. In Matthew 16:13 Jesus asks, who do the people say the Son of Man is, and his disciples answer “John the Baptist”, and some of them say “Elijah”, others say “Jeremiah” or “one of the prophets”.

k = Jesus is enlightened. In the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-8) Jesus receives the Baptism of the Holy Spirit and is enlightened. This event took place on the mountain and three disciples (Peter, Jacob and John) witness it. They are accompanied by two more people: Moses and Elijah.

l = Jesus eats and drinks among other people. “The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Here is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’ But wisdom is proved right by her deeds.” (Matthew 11:19)

m = Jesus is like Adam. “Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he was” (Quran, Surat 'Āli `Imrān, 3:59). AND “For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Corinthians 15:22). Jesus is born of the Holy Spirit (Matthew 1:18).

n = Jesus knew how to talk already as a baby. “So she pointed to him. They said, "How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?" [Jesus] said, "Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive. And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive." That is Jesus, the son of Mary - the word of truth about which they are in dispute.” (Quran, Surat Mariym, 19:30-34)

o = Jesus’s name is Immanuel (Matthew 1:23).

p = Jesus’s name is Christ (Matthew 1:16).

q = Jesus is Jesus, which means Josua [jæʃu:ɑ:ɪn] (Matthew 1:25).

r = The name Jesus is written عِيسَى [i:sɑ:] according to the Quran (Parrinder, 1996).

s = Jesus is ascetic (Hämeen-Anttila, 2006).


Thirdly, let there be the complements of A and B.

A= {t, u, v}


t = John is not Christ and Messiah (John 1:20).

u = John is not Elijah (John 1:21).

v = John is not prophet (John 1:21).


B= {∅}


The complement of set B is an empty set, because it is described in scripture that as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit, Jesus is everything, and thus there is nothing that describes what he is not.


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